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This collective unconscious is inherited. It consists of pre-existent forms, the archetypes, which can only become conscious secondarily and which give definite form to certain psychic contents. Jung linked the collective unconscious to'what Freud called "archaic remnants" — mental forms whose presence cannot be explained by anything in the individual's own life and which seem to be aboriginal and inherited shapes of the human mind', he credited Freud for developing his "primal horde" theory in Totem and Taboo and continued further with the idea of an archaic ancestor maintaining its influence in the minds of present-day humans.

Every human being, he wrote, "however high his conscious development, is still an archaic man at the deeper levels of his psyche. The collective unconscious exerts overwhelming influence on the minds of individuals. These effects of course vary since they involve every emotion and situation. At times, the collective unconscious can terrify, but it can heal. Jung contrasted the collective unconscious with the personal unconscious, the unique aspects of an individual study which Jung says constitute the focus of Sigmund Freud and Alfred Adler.

Psychotherapy patients, it seemed to Jung described fantasies and dreams which repeated elements from ancient mythology; these elements appeared in patients who were not exposed to the original story. For example, mythology offers many examples of the "dual mother" narrative, according to which a child has a biological mother and a divine mother. Therefore, argues Jung, Freudian psychoanalysis would neglect important sources for unconscious ideas, in the case of a patient with neurosis around a dual-mother image; this divergence over the nature of the unconscious has been cited as a key aspect of Jung's famous split from Sigmund Freud and his school of psychoanalysis.

Some commentators have rejected Jung's characterization of Freud, observing that in texts such as Totem an. Galaxy Science Fiction Galaxy Science Fiction was an American digest-size science fiction magazine, published from to It was founded by a French-Italian company, World Editions, looking to break into the American market. World Editions hired as editor H. Gold , who made Galaxy the leading science fiction magazine of its time, focusing on stories about social issues rather than technology.

Gold published many notable stories during his tenure, including Ray Bradbury's " The Fireman " expanded as Fahrenheit In , the magazine was acquired by its printer. By the late s, Frederik Pohl was helping Gold with most aspects of the magazine's production; when Gold's health worsened, Pohl took over as editor, starting at the end of , though he had been doing the majority of the production work for some time. Pohl never won the annual Hugo Award for his stewardship of Galaxy, winning three Hugos instead for its sister magazine, If.

Under Jakobsson the magazine declined in quality, it recovered under James Baen , who took over in mid, but when he left at the end of the deterioration resumed, there were financial problems—writers were not paid on time and the schedule became erratic. By the end of the s the gaps between issues were lengthening, the title was sold to Galileo publisher Vincent McCaffrey, who brought out only a single issue in A brief revival as a semi-professional magazine followed in , edited by H.

Gold's son, E. At its peak, Galaxy influenced the science fiction genre, it was regarded as one of the leading sf magazines from the start, its influence did not wane until Pohl's departure in Gold brought a "sophisticated intellectual subtlety" to magazine science fiction according to Pohl, who added that "after Galaxy it was impossible to go on being naive. SF historian David Kyle agreed, commenting that "of all the editors in and out of the post-war scene, the most influential beyond any doubt was H.

Kyle suggested that the new direction Gold set "inevitably" led to the experimental New Wave , the defining science fiction literary movement of the s; the first science fiction magazine, Amazing Stories , appeared in By the end of the s, the genre was flourishing in the United States , but World War II and its resulting paper shortages led to the demise of several magazines. In the late s, the market began to recover. From a low of eight active US magazines in , the field expanded to 20 just four years later.

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Galaxy's appearance in was part of this boom. According to sf historian and critic Mike Ashley , its success was the main reason for a subsequent flood of new releases: 22 more science fiction magazines appeared by , when the market dipped again as a side effect of US Senate hearings into the putative connection between comic books and juvenile delinquency. Gold, Galaxy's first editor, had worked at Standard Magazines in the early s as an assistant editor, reading for Standard's three science fiction pulps: Startling Stories , Thrilling Wonder, Captain Future. With the advent of the war, Gold left publishing and went into the army, but in late he was approached by Vera Cerutti, who had once worked for him.

World Editions took a heavy loss on Fascination, its first attempt to launch a US magazine, Cerutti returned to Gold asking for recommendations for new titles. World Editions agreed, hired Gold as the editor, the first issue appeared in October The novel series subsequently appeared as Galaxy Science Fiction Novels. Gold suggested two titles for the magazine, If and Galaxy.

Gold's art director, Washington Irving van der Poel, mocked up multiple layouts and Gold invited hundreds of writers, editors and fans to view them and vote for their favorite. Along with an essay by Gold, Galaxy's premiere issue introduced a book review column by anthologist Groff Conklin , which ran until , a Willy Ley science column.

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Gold sought to implement high-quality printing techniques, though the quality of the available paper was insufficient for the full benefits to be seen. Within months, the outbreak of the Korean War led to paper shortages that forced Gold to find a new printer, Robert M.

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The new paper was of lower quality, a disappointment to Gold. According to Gold, the magazine was profitable within five issues: an "incredible" achievement, in his words. English Civil War The English Civil War was a series of armed conflicts and political machinations between Parliamentarians and Royalists over, the manner of England's governance. The first and second wars pitted the supporters of King Charles I against the supporters of the Long Parliament , while the third saw fighting between supporters of King Charles II and supporters of the Rump Parliament ; the war ended with the Parliamentarian victory at the Battle of Worcester on 3 September The overall outcome of the war was threefold: the trial and execution of Charles I.

In England , the monopoly of the Church of England on Christian worship was ended, while in Ireland the victors consolidated the established Protestant Ascendancy. Constitutionally, the wars established the precedent that an English monarch cannot govern without Parliament's consent, although the idea of Parliament as the ruling power of England was only established as part of the Glorious Revolution in ; the term "English Civil War" appears most in the singular form, although historians divide the conflict into two or three separate wars.

These wars were not restricted to England as Wales was a part of the Kingdom of England and was affected accordingly, the conflicts involved wars with, civil wars within, both Scotland and Ireland. The war in all these countries is known as the Wars of the Three Kingdoms.

The two sides had their geographical strongholds, such that minority elements were fled; the strongholds of the royalty included the countryside, the shires, the less economically developed areas of northern and western England. On the other hand, all the cathedral cities sided with Parliament.

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All the industrial centers, the ports, the economically advanced regions of southern and eastern England were parliamentary strongholds. Lacey Baldwin Smith says, "the words populous and rebellious seemed to go hand in hand". Many of the officers and veteran soldiers of the English Civil War studied and implemented war strategies, learned and perfected in other wars across Europe , namely by the Spanish and the Dutch during the Dutch war for independence which began in ; the main battle tactic came to be known as pike and shot infantry, in which the two sides would line up, facing each other, with infantry brigades of musketeers in the centre, carrying matchlock muskets.

The brigades would arrange themselves in lines of musketeers, three deep, where the first row would kneel, the second would crouch, the third would stand, allowing all three to fire a volley simultaneously. At times there would be two groups of three lines allowing one group to reload while the other group arranged themselves and fired. Mixed in among the musketeers were pikemen carrying pikes that were between 12 feet and 18 feet long, whose primary purpose was to protect the musketeers from cavalry charges.

Positioned on each side of the infantry were the cavalry, with a right-wing led by the lieutenant-general , a left-wing by the commissary general; the Royalist cavaliers' skill and speed on horseback led to many early victories. Prince Rupert , the leader of the king's cavalry, learned a tactic while fighting in the Dutch army where the cavalry would charge at full speed into the opponent's infantry firing their pistols just before impact. However, with Oliver Cromwell and the introduction of the more disciplined New Model Army , a group of disciplined pikemen would stand their ground in the face of charging cavalry and could have a devastating effect.

While the Parliamentarian cavalry were slower than the cavaliers, they were better disciplined; the Royalists had a tendency to chase down individual targets after the initial charge leaving their forces scattered and tired. Cromwell's cavalry, on the other hand, was trained to operate as a single unit, which led to many decisive victories.

Elizabeth's death had resulted in the succession of her first cousin twice-removed, King James VI of Scotland , to the English throne as James I of England, creating the first personal union of the Scottish and English kingdoms; as King of Scots , James had become accustomed to Scotland's weak parliamentary tradition since assuming control of the Scottish government in , so that upon assuming power south of the border, the new King of England was genuinely affronted by the constraints the English Parliament attempted to place on him in exchange for money.

In spite of this, James's personal extravagance meant he was perennially short of money and had to resort to extra-Parliamentary sources of income; this extravagance was tempered by James's peaceful disposition, so that by the su. Psychology Psychology is the science of behavior and mind.

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Psychology includes the study of conscious and unconscious phenomena, as well as feeling and thought, it is an academic discipline of immense scope. Psychologists seek an understanding of the emergent properties of brains, all the variety of phenomena linked to those emergent properties; as a social science it aims to understand individuals and groups by establishing general principles and researching specific cases. In this field, a professional practitioner or researcher is called a psychologist and can be classified as a social, behavioral, or cognitive scientist.

Psychologists attempt to understand the role of mental functions in individual and social behavior, while exploring the physiological and biological processes that underlie cognitive functions and behaviors. Psychologists explore behavior and mental processes, including perception, attention, intelligence, motivation, brain functioning, personality; this extends to interaction between people, such as interpersonal relationships, including psychological resilience, family resilience, other areas.

Psychologists of diverse orientations consider the unconscious mind. Psychologists employ empirical methods to infer causal and correlational relationships between psychosocial variables. In addition, or in opposition, to employing empirical and deductive methods, some—especially clinical and counseling psychologists—at times rely upon symbolic interpretation and other inductive techniques.

Psychology has been described as a "hub science" in that medicine tends to draw psychological research via neurology and psychiatry , whereas social sciences most draws directly from sub-disciplines within psychology. While psychological knowledge is applied to the assessment and treatment of mental health problems, it is directed towards understanding and solving problems in several spheres of human activity.

By many accounts psychology aims to benefit society; the majority of psychologists are involved in some kind of therapeutic role, practicing in clinical, counseling, or school settings. Many do scientific research on a wide range of topics related to mental processes and behavior, work in university psychology departments or teach in other academic settings.

Some are employed in industrial and organizational settings, or in other areas such as human development and aging, sports and the media, as well as in forensic investigation and other aspects of law. The earliest known reference to the word psychology in English was by Steven Blankaart in in The Physical Dictionary which refers to "Anatomy, which treats the Body, Psychology, which treats of the Soul.

This definition enjoyed widespread currency for decades.

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However, this meaning was contested, notably by radical behaviorists such as John B. Watson , who in his manifesto defined the discipline of psychology as the acquisition of information useful to the control of behavior. Since James defined it, the term more connotes techniques of scientific experimentation.

Folk psychology refers to the understanding of ordinary people, as contrasted with that of psychology professionals; the ancient civilizations of Egypt , China and Persia all engaged in the philosophical study of psychology. In Ancient Egypt the Ebers Papyrus mentioned thought disorders. Historians note that Greek philosophers, including Thales and Aristotle , addressed the workings of the mind; as early as the 4th century BC, Greek physician Hippocrates theorized that mental disorders had physical rather than supernatural causes.

In China, psychological understanding grew from the philosophical works of Laozi and Confucius , from the doctrines of Buddhism ; this body of knowledge involves insights drawn from introspection and observation, as well as techniques for focused thinking and acting. It frames the universe as a division of, interaction between, physical reality and mental reality, with an emphasis on purifying the mind in order to increase virtue and power. An ancient text known as The Yellow Emperor's Classic of Internal Medicine identifies the brain as the nexus of wisdom and sensation, includes theories of personality based on yin—yang balance, analyzes mental disorder in terms of physiological and social disequilibria.

Wang Qingren emphasized the importance of the brain as the center of the nervous system, linked mental disorder with brain diseases, investigated the causes of dreams and insomnia , advanced a theory of hemispheric lateralization in brain function. Distinctions in types of awareness appear in the ancient thought of India , influenced by Hinduism.

A central idea of the Upanishads is the distinction between a person's transient mundane self and their eternal unchanging soul. Divergent Hindu doctrines, Buddhism, have challenged this hierarchy of selves, but have all emphasized the importance of reaching higher. A "masterpiece" was a work of a high standard produced to obtain membership of a guild or academy in various areas of the visual arts and crafts; the form masterstik is recorded in English or Scots in a set of Aberdeen guild regulations dated to , whereas "masterpiece" is first found in outside a guild context, in a Ben Jonson play.

In English, the term became used in a variety of contexts for an exceptionally good piece of creative work, was "in early use applied to man as the'masterpiece' of God or Nature"; the term masterpiece referred to a piece of work produced by an apprentice or journeyman aspiring to become a master craftsman in the old European guild system. His fitness to qualify for guild membership was judged by the masterpiece, if he was successful, the piece was retained by the guild. Great care was therefore taken to produce a fine piece in whatever the craft was, whether confectionery , goldsmithing , leatherworking , or many other trades.

In London , in the 17th century, the Worshipful Company of Goldsmiths , for instance, required an apprentice to produce a masterpiece under their supervision at a " workhouse " in Goldsmiths' Hall ; the workhouse had been set up as part of a tightening of standards after the company became concerned that the level of skill of goldsmithing was being diluted.

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The same goldsmithing organization still requires the production of a masterpiece but it is no longer produced under supervision. In Nuremberg , between and , apprentices who wished to become master goldsmith were required to produce columbine cups, dice for a steel seal, gold rings set with precious stones before they could be admitted to the goldsmiths' guild. If they failed to be admitted they could continue to work for other goldsmiths but not as a master themselves.

In some guilds, apprentices were not allowed to marry.