It is, therefore, essential to refer to only most trusted historians and most trusted books of history to understand correct details about events of that time.
We will now present my brief analysis on some key sources for Mongol history and discuss their historical significance in accordance with chronology presented in table 1. Ibn Al-Athir and his family made huge contributions to Hadith and other Islamic literature. His elder brother, Majid ud Din was a scholar of note who made a collection of the Hadith and Sunnah of Beloved Prophet Muhammad?
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This book, like many other medieval books of history, starts with the lives of Prophets and goes on to cover the events of history covering many important events. Ibn A1 Athir has covered crusades in details is considered to be a key source of information for that time. He also touches upon Seljuqs. For some years, he refrained himself from writing about Mongol invasion because of severe pain he felt about those events as reflected in words he has used to describe his feelings.
Online The Annals Of The Saljuq Turks Selections From Al Kamil Fil Tarikh Of Ibn Al Athir 2002
He considers this period to be the most crucial time in Muslim history. Ibn Al-Athir has also written a history of the atabegs former Seljuq army officers who founded dynasties of Mosul called al-Bahir, which was drawn from his own experience and from that of his father, who held office under the Zangids 1 of Mosul. Among his other works were compilations of biographical and genealogical material of earlier authors. This history does not cover the events that took over Abbasid Caliphate and other areas after initial Mongol invasions as Ibn-Athir died in Fahimi Kamaruzaman, Jamaluddin, and Faathin Mohd Fadzil analyzed the Muqaddimah section of this book and presented following findings from their research: 1 The Zengid or Zangid dynasty was a Muslim dynasty of Oghuz Turk origin, which ruled parts of Syria and northern Iraq on behalf of the Seljuk Empire.
First, tazkirah reminder is a reminder for mankind of historical events that happened. Second, sahih authentic is a selection technique of factual historical content. Third, tamm completeness or perfection as a process of scrutiny and observation before a narration is chosen and written. Al-Tabari left the analysis of accounts mentioned in his book to readers to judge if they were fine or not. However, Ibn Al-Athir, did question those events in some instances e. Musharraf b has presented details about various narrations in this book which are from weak and untrustworthy narrators.
Accordingly, one should be cautious about such narrations, especially those concerning sahabah.
This provided him with right resources to compile this book. He was also appointed as the head of the Firuzi Madrassa in Ucch, Qazi of Gwalior and the head of Madrassa-i Nasiri in Delhi owing to his jurisprudential potential and scholarly abilities. This style of 7 The Scholar July- December Historical Sources of Mongol History writing was pioneered by Juzjani and became a renowned method among later historians.
Though the book talks about a number of various topics such as history of prophets, pre-Islamic Arabia, ancient kings of Persia, formation of Muslim state by Prophet Muhammad PBUH and its expansion, Ummayad, and Abbasid Caliphates etc. Choudhary explained: This work which was completed in is especially revered for being an important source of information about the Delhi Sultanate and the Mongols. The author himself was witness to the Mongol conquest of Central Asia in the s.
While he was fortunate enough to survive the Mongol onslaught, he was forced to flee his homeland of Ghur, in central Afghanistan, never to return again. In , he sought refuge in India and found patronage under the Delhi Sutanate. It was here that Juzjani wrote the Tabaqat-i-Nasiri. Jalal-al-Din of Samarqand; and others The last tabaqah, which deals with Mongols, was being written 8 The Scholar July- December Historical Sources of Mongol History simultaneously as the events were unfolding leaving little if no dependence on memory unlike numerous other historical collection of his time.
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He then explains the horrific stories of the fall of Persia and does not refrain from challenging and criticizing the approach and policies of Alauddin Khwarismshah, the Muslim ruler of Persia at the time of invasion. He then moves on and explains subsequent attacks. Ogedei, the eldest son of Changez Khan and his immediate successor, has received praises from Juzjani for allowing the Muslim rulers to retain their states by pledging an alliance to him, rebuilding the cities ruined by wars and allowing Muslims to marry Mongol women.
But soon after him, the aggression started again and the war was waged against the Khilafah. Juzjani dedicates a separate section to Burke Khan, the first Mongol prince to accept Islam, which resulted in the dissolution of the Mongols. Juzjani has cited the sources of his information as well and showed concerns where he doubted the authenticity of those sources.
Being affiliated with the Turkish rulers, he is criticized for explaining certain things from their perspective and not challenging them on various matters Bosworth, Another criticism relates to repetitive, and sometimes contradictory, mention of same events in various tabaqat. The selection and organization of the historical material combined with an original and straightforward style, rendered it a work of absorbing interest for all times.
This historical account was written in Persian language and describes the Mongol history its contemporaries. Juvaini, like his father and brother, served the Mongols and acquired high ranks among them Young, This provided him with an opportunity to travel widely within the kingdom and acquire useful knowledge which he later used in compilation of his historical account. In when he had an extended time at his disposal while being posted at Karakoram, he was persuaded by some acquaintances to compile this work. His relationship with Mongols is evident from the praise he remembers them within this book which he wrote while serving them.
Shortly after completing this book after the fall of Alamut fort of Assassins and the fall of Baghdad, he was given the governorship of Baghdad Young, He held that position for 20 years. There are a few important points to reflect about this book: Al-Juvaini is often found guilty of exaggeration in the favor of Mongols and presents events with a dramatic touch e. His main source in compiling this work was stories that he heard from other people, mainly Mongols who he was an ally of and acquired the favors from.
When the Mongols invaded Muslim caliphate in the middle-east, Juvaini was with them. He witnessed the fall of Alamut fort of Assassins while being in the company of Hulagu Khan. He was one of the members of the army that invaded Baghdad and pillaged the Muslim caliphate of the Abbasids Melville, The next year, he was bestowed with the appointment as governor of Baghdad, Lower Mesopotamia, and Khuzistan.
Al-Awamir al-Ala iyyafil umoor al-Ala iyya: Ibn Bibi is the author of this Persian book which encompasses the period between and Duda, It is a highly political concentrating mainly on Seljuqs of Rum and their interactions with Mongols. Yildiz pointed out that this work by Ibn Bibi was compiled in response to rebellions in which further engraved the problems that Mongols were facing in strengthening their rule over Anatolia. Ibn Bibi was a close friend of Juvaini.
This work was most probably an attempt by Juvaini, who was among the Mongol ruling elite at that time to appease Anatolia and strengthen the rule of Ilkhanate. Ibn Bibi is accordingly seen arguing for a Seljuq sultanate under the Mongol domination and acceptance of authority of administration by Juvaini 11 The Scholar July- December Historical Sources of Mongol History Yildiz, The journey of William of Rubruck to the eastern parts of the world, After the humiliating defeat of Christian armies by the Ayyubid ruler Turan Shah in the 7 th crusade on Egypt sent the shock-waves in France where the false news were spread the crusader army led by Louis IX later known as St.
Louis had comprehensively defeated the Muslims. To surprise of those who were pre-empting such outcomes, Louis was captured as war prisoner along with others.
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He was later expelled from Egypt on payment to the Muslim army for his release. In an attempt to form an alliance with Mongols against the Muslims, Louis sent William of Rubruck as an emissary to the Mongols in order to strike a deal with them.
It was his travels between that informed the reports he submitted to the King Louis IX. This report is the only available source for information about his travels to the lands conquered by Mongols including Crimea, the Caucasus, Central Asia, and Asia Minor Jackson, Jackson indicated that his aims also included preaching the Christian faith and meeting Mongol princes who were sympathetic towards his faith.
When William of Rubruck delivered the letter from King Louis IX demanding support from the Mongols against Muslims, Mongke who was contacted by other Mongol leaders that William contacted sent a letter asking for King Louis to submit to his rule Jackson, He accordingly went back toward Palestine and then to France. His father and grandfather had an opportunity to serve in the courts of Hulagu Khan. Based on this relationship, Rashid also got a high-rank advisory position in the Tl khanid court Jackson, Rashid ud din converted to Islam at the age of 30 around However, during the subsequent times of civil unrest, he went into a state of obscurity.
He, later on, joined the court of Ghazan Khan, a Mongol ruler of Ilkhan who converted to Islam as he took the power 4. However, some writers have raised concerns regarding possible political nature of his conversion.
After acquiring the throne, he led an unsuccessful campaign against the Egyptian Mamluks. In , Ghazan appointed Rashid to write a historical account. This work is believed to be the first global history which not only focused on Mongols but also provided important details about Chinese, Franks and Indians starting from Adam A.
S and going all the way up to the time of Presently as well, Iran is home to the biggest population of Jews in middle-east after Israel andTurkey and the Jewish population in the country is growing Sengupta, A smaller percentage is also found in Canada. Tel Aviv and Tehran run direct flights to each other during the war period and Iran supplied them with their fueling needs. He was the son of Arghun and Quthluq Khatun, continuing a long line of rulers who were direct descendants of Genghis Khan.
Thucydides BC — c. Former Muslims or ex-Muslims are people who were Muslims, but subsequently left the Islamic religion. Although their numbers have increased in recent years in Western countries, ex-Muslims still face ostracism or retaliation from their families and communities due to beliefs about apostasy in Islam, which is punishable by death under sharia law.
Rama II of Siam took her as a concubine. The following is a list of notable Shia Muslims. This is a list of Muslim scientists who have contributed significantly to science and civilization in the Islamic Golden Age i. This is a list of historians categorized by their area of study. See also List of historians. This is the list of the Muslims in entertainment and the media. Comedy American comedian Dave Chappelle in Ahmed Ahmed — standup comedian, actor Humza Arshad — English comedian Dave Chappelle — standup comedian converted in  Said Durrah — standup comedian  Maz Jobrani — standup comedian, actor Mohammed "Mo" Amer — standup comedian, actor Hasan Minaj — standup comedian Preacher Moss — standup comedian, comedy writer Dean Obeidallah — standup comedian Aamer Rahman - Australian standup comedian Azhar Usman — standup comedian Maysoon Zayid — standup comedian, actress Film and television Indian film actor Aamir Khan, one of the Three Khans of Bollywood, in The majority of Indian Muslims belong to Sunni sect of Islam while the Shia form a sizeable minority.
This is an incomplete list of notable British Muslims. His work often focuses on technology and posthumanism. This article is an incomplete list of noted modern-era 20th to 21st century Islamic scholars. This refers to religious authorities whose publications or statements are accepted as pronouncements on religion by their respective communities and adherents.
For a list of academic scholars specializing in Islam within the field of religious studies, see List of Islamic studies scholars.
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Geographical categories have been created based on commonalities in culture and across the Islamic World. He was a notable author and writer of Urdu. During the period, Akbarabadi was appointed as a teacher of oriental languages in Madrasa-e-Aaliya, Fatehpuri; he did M. A in Arabic from St. Stephen's College, Delhi. Thereafter, he was appointed as a teacher of oriental languages in Madrassa-e-Aalia, Fatehpuri.
After the completi.